Microbiology is a branch of science that deals with the study of living organisms that are not visible with naked eyes but can only be seen with a microscope. It also deals with the study of interaction between other living organisms and micro-organisms such as Bacteria, Archea, Virus, Fungi, Protozoa,Algae etc.A MICROBIOLOGIST is a scientist who studies the interaction between living organisms and infectious particles that can’t be seen with naked eyes.The father of Microbiology is Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), The father of Modern Microbiology is Louis Pasteur, A french Biologist (1822-1895) and the father of Medical Microbiology is Robert Koch.
Branches of Microbiology are mainly 7 and are stated below;
1. BACTERIOLOGY: The study of bacteria.
2. PROTOZOLOGY: The study of Protozoa.
3. PHYCOLOGY or ALGOLOGY: The study of Algae.
- 4. MYCOLOGY: The study of Fungi.
5. PARASITOLOGY: The study of Parasites.
6. IMMUNOLOGY: The study of immune system.
7.VIROLOGY: The study of virus.
The branches of Microbiology includes the following;
1. Food and Diary Microbiology: This is the study of microorganisms that inhibit, create or contaminate food. They are either beneficial to food or cause food spoilage and food poison. Beneficial Microorganisms are yeast,Saccharomyces.Harmful Microorganisms are staphylococcus, Escherichia-coli, Etc.
2. Pharmaceutical Microbiology: Application of Microbiology to pharmaceutical and health care environment. It deals with production of anti infective agent, to detect mutagenic and caranogenic activity of drugs. They ensure the quality control of live saving drug and vaccine that are free from Microbial effect. They also focus mainly on pathology Microorganisms such as Bacteria and Fungi.
3. Industrial Microbiology: Branch of Microbiology which Microorganisms are used for the production of substances such as antibiotics, food production, amino acids, enzymes and fine chemicals. It can be categorized into biotransformation, production of biofuels and biomass, metabolic production etc.
4. Clinical Microbiology: This is the largest subset branch of Microbiology applied to Medicine concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious disease caused by Microorganisms.
- 5. Public Health Microbiology: This is highly interdisciplinary branch that includes anyone involved with Microorganisms and infectious disease. They provide important I formation like detection and characterization of pathogens to health care teams.
6. Marine Microbiology: This is a branch of Microbiology that deals with the study of marine environment which includes their biodiversity, ecology and biogeochemistry. It’s the use of metagenomics to reveal the abundance and composition of marine microbial ecosystem. It was first observed in 1675.
7. Agricultural Microbiology: This is a branch of Microbiology that deals with plant associated microbes, plant and animal disease. It also deals with the microbiology of soil fertility, soil Microbe degradation of organic matter, soil nutrient transformation, to determine crop pest and improve soil quality.